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Soft non-ferrous materials
When machining soft non-ferrous metals with high malleability such as aluminum alloys, a sharp cutting edge geometry with a larger rake angle and flank angles should be used.
For this, the highly sharp DP combination is most suitable. If a cutting edge geometry with poor sharpness is used, chips will adhere to the rake and flank faces. This can lead to various problems such as chipping and fracturing of the cutting edge, burr formation and failure to acquire the required surface finish.
In comparison with steel, cast iron has relatively low cutting resistance and the chips developed are easily broken into short lengths. Therefore, it is possible to prioritize the economical advantage of double-sided inserts (negative inserts) rather than considering sharpness and chip control. In this case a DN combination is most suitable.
For fragile materials like cast iron, care should be taken to prevent chipping of the workpiece. This kind of chipping results from cracks due to the workpiece not being able to withstand the cutting forces being placed on it. This can be seen in the two images to the left. In such a case, the use of a cutting edge geometry to prevent such cracks can be used. This can be seen in the image to the right. Here the corner angle closest to the point of exiting of the work is made larger, thus strengthening the work (makes the chip thicker) at the point of exit. The effect of which prevents chipping of the workpiece.
When machining steel, the chips generated tend to be continuos. This makes chip control an important issue to be taken into consideration. In addition, a cutting edge geometry that can meet a wide range of requirements such as insert life and machining accuracy are also required. For this, an NP combination offering high sharpness and chip control is suitable.
When machining steel, due to the cutting edge combination used the chips generated will vary in shape. With the NP combination the chips generated are cylindrical and are discharged away from face milling cutter. Meanwhile, with the DN and PN combination the chips generated are spiral and tend to discharge into the centre of the face milling cutter. This can create machining problems.