Factors affecting chip control

It can be seen that the “h” section of workpiece material has changed considerably to a much thicker shape (hc) possibly because the workpiece material continuously suffers from shear deformation and accumulates as shown. The fact that such plastic deformation actually occurs has been proved by various tests.


In the process of shear deformation, high heat is generated by internal friction. This is why chips are too hot to be handled manually even if the cutting speed is low. Additionally, work hardening occurs making the chips much harder than the workpiece material itself.


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The animation to the right shows a turning tool machining a workpiece. When the depth of cut is h, the chip thickness is approx. 3h. The workpiece cross section marked with diagonal lines, h×l, was machined by the cutting edge and transformed into a chip. This created a chip thickness of approx. 3 times×h and the length was reduced to about 1 / 3 with the same cross section. This demonstrates that the metal underwent great deformation in the process of being made into a chip.