Basic Milling



Abrasion wear

A wear pattern that occurs due to the chips rubbing across the surface of the tool.


Alloy concentration

This refers to the ratio of the alloy concentration.



An organization founded in 1918 that developed standards for industrial products in the United States.



An arbor is a term used to describe a holder that used to mount a cutting tool on to a machine spindle.



Back feed

When facing, back feed refers to machining from the work´s centre towards the outer diameter.


Ball bearing

A device that comprises of ball that are housed inside a bearing. It is used to reduce the friction between 2 rotating components.


Bar work

Bar work is a term used to refer to the machining on an automatic lathe while the workpiece is being automatically fed into the machine.


Blade type

A blade type cutter refers to an old type of milling cutter that used high-speed steel or brazed carbide blades as the cutting edge. These blades were mechanically clamped onto the face milling cutter.



A solid solution of γ (gamma) carbon (C) in f.c.c (face-centred cubic structure). The maximum solubility of C is between 1.7% ~ 2.1%. Austenite does not exist at room temperature, however it can be obtained by rapid cooling (quenching). If obtained via a quenching process then the material properties are that it is relatively soft with high toughness.


Automatic tool changer

ATC is a device that is used on a machining centre to keeps tools in a given place. This device will mounts the tools on the spindle automatically. It is computer controlled. It is generally referred to as ATC.






Body clearance

Is a term given to an area of clearance behind the cutting edge of a drill or end mill to avoid contact with the work when machining is carried out.


Brazed tool holder

A tool holder that has a cutting edge that has been brazed on.


BT shank

BT shank is one of a wide range of standards for the shanks and spindles of machines.



A term that refers to a process used to improve the surface finish of a machined surface. This is typical in drilling operations. It can be achieved as the

softer material (the workpiece) is rubbed after machining by a harder material (the drill).