What is required most in machining is a reduction in machining time, long tool life and high machining accuracy. To achieve this, it is necessary to decide up on the optimum tool after considering the workpiece material, hardness, geometry, condition and the machine performance, and to select cutting conditions that allow efficient machining.
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The cutting speed is a term that refers to the speed at which material is removed with the cutting edge. The amount that the cutting edge moves into the workpiece is represented as metres (m) per minute.
If the RPM is fixed then the larger the workpiece diameter becomes the higher the cutting speed.
0.1m in circumference
(=Distance machined in one rotation of workoiece)
0.2m in circumference
(=Distance machined in one rotation of workoieace.)
At a constant cutting speed, the smaller the workpiece diameter, the faster the RPM becomes.
For the tool holder, “feed rate” is the amount of movement of the tool holder in one rotation of the work. For the cutter, “feed rate” is expressed by the value founded by dividing the amount of movement of the machine table in one rotation of the cutter by the number of teeth (feed per tooth).
Lowering “feed rate” will extremely shorten tool life. Higher “feed rate” will increase flank wear.
Depth of cut
The depth of cut is decided by machining, allowance and shape of the work piece, power and rigidity of the machine and tool rigidity.
The depth of cut is usually expressed in half stock removal and will never be larger than the main cutting edge length of the insert.