There are various kinds of chucks for holding a workpiece in a machine.
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As the 3 jaws open and close at the same time, it is easier to set up and to remove round or hexagonal workpieces. The inner and outer jaws can be removed and turned around to suit the size of the workpiece and the method of machining to be employed.
Hyudralic chuck, Air chuck
For automatic lathes, the use of chucks operated by either oil pressure or air pressure are used. The reason for this is to automate the set up and for the removal of the workpiece. One other advantage with this type of clamping is that the clamping forces are very high.
Scroll chuck (soft jaws)
Basically the same function as the scroll chuck. However the jaws are in a soft state and as such can be used to hold a workpiece that has already been machined. By doing so the use of soft jaws prevents damaging the machined surface. Additionally with this type of clamping method the jaws can be machined to suit the actual geometry of the work that is to be held.
If necessary, it is possible to remove the soft jaws and replace them with jaws that have been through some kind of heat treatment process.
Four jaw chuck
For this particular type of chuck each of the jaws can be moved individually. And as such it is possible to clamp uneven surfaces and /or irregular shaped workpieces. There is only one drawback and that is that due to the centre of gravity of the work not being in line with that of the axis of rotation high spindle speeds can not be used.